Baldwin County was first laid out by the Lottery Act of 1803. Parts were added from Wilkinson, Washington, and Hancock in 1807. Parts were also added from Washington County in 1812, and a part taken from Washington in 1826.
The Oconee River runs through the middle of the county into which Fishing and other creeks empty.
Milledgeville is the seat of justice for the county and was, at one time, the capital of the State of Georgia. It is situated on the west side of the Oconee River. The town was named after Governor John Milledge. It was made a city in 1836. The legislature first held its session here in 1807.
Scottsborough, named after General John Scott, four miles south of Milledgeville, is a pleasant summer residence.
Fort Wilkinson is on the Oconee, three miles below Milledgeville, and is famous as the place where a treaty was held with the Creeks 16 June1802.